Friday, August 31, 2007

European Parliament election, 1999 (France)
On June 13 1994 the fifth direct elections to the European Parliament were held in the France. Once again, abstention was very high- only 47% of eligible voters voted.
Charles Pasqua's dissident Rally for France surpassed President Jacques Chirac's RPR, led by Nicolas Sarkozy. Minor parties, including Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions and the far-left Workers' Struggle obtained a very good score and elected 6 and 5 MEP's respectively.

Thursday, August 30, 2007

Coordinates: 23°50′N 91°17′E / 23.84, 91.28
Tripura  (Bengali script: ত্রিপুরা) is a state in North-East India. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, south and west. The Indian states of Assam and Mizoram lie to the east. The capital is Agartala and the main languages spoken are Bengali and Kokborok (also known as Tripuri). It was formerly an independent Tripuri kingdom .

Origin of name

Main article: History of Tripura History
Tripura is a landlocked hilly state in northeastern India with altitudes varying from 50 to 3080 ft above sea level, though the majority of the population lives in the plains. Tripura has a tropical climate and receives rainfall during the monsoons. It is surrounded on the north, west, and south by Bangladesh and is accessible to the rest of India through the Cachar district of Assam and Aizawl district of Mizoram in the east. The state extends between 22°56'N and 24°32'N and 90°09'E and 92°10'E. Its maximum stretch measures about 184 km from north to south and 113 km from east to west with an area of 10,492 km². Tripura is the third smallest state of the country.
Although landlocked, Tripura has many rivers including the Manu River which originates here.

Tripura Geography and climate
figures in millions of Indian Rupees Tripura's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.1 billion in current prices. Agriculture and allied activities is the mainstay of the people of Tripura and provides employment to about 64% of the population. There is a preponderance of food crop cultivation over cash crop cultivation in Tripura. At present about 62% of the net sown area is under food crop cultivation. Paddy is the principal crop, followed by oilseed, pulses, potato and sugarcane. Tea and rubber are the important cash crops of the State. Tripura has been declared the Second Rubber Capital of India after Kerala by the Indian Rubber Board. Handicraft, particularly hand-woven cotton fabic, wood carvings and bamboo products, are also important. The per capita income at current prices of the state stands at INRs 10,931 and at constant prices Rs 6,813 in the financial year 2000-2001.
Some quality timber like Sal, Garjan, Teak and Gamar are found abundantly in the forests of Tripura. Tripura has poor mineral resources, with meagre deposits of kaolin, iron ore, limestone, coal and natural gas. The industrial sector of the state continues to be highly underdeveloped.

Government and politics
For administrative purposes, the state has been divided into 4 districts, 17 subdivisions, 40 development blocks.
Major towns of the state are Agartala, Badharghat, Jogendranagar, Dharmanagar, Pratapgarh, Udaipur, Kailashahar, Teliamura, Indranagar, Khowai and Belonia. Badharghat, Jogendranagar and Indranagar are now parts of the Agartala municipality.

Tripura is connected with the rest of the country through Assam by narrow gauge railway line extending to Lumding and Silchar. The main railways stations are in the northern towns of Dharmanagar and Kumarghat. National Highway 44 connects it to Assam and the rest of India.
Agartala Airport, which has flights to Kolkata, Guwahati, Bangalore , Chennai and Silchar, is the main airport of the state.
Most of the major Telecommunications companies of India are present in the state, with the state capital and regions of the state being served by Airtel, Aircel, Reliance and BSNL landline, mobile and broadband networks.

Transport and communication
Tripura is the second most populous state in North-East India, after Assam. According to the census of 2001, Tripura has a total population of 3,191,168, with a density of 304 persons per square kilometer, and ranks 22nd among Indian states. It constitutes 0.31% population of India and 8.18% of the Northeast. In the 2001 census of India, Bengalis represent almost 70 % of Tripura's population and the native tribal populations represent 30% of Tripura's population. The tribal population comprises several different tribes and ethnic groups with diverse languages and cultures with the largest tribal group being the Kokborok-speaking tribes of the Tripuri (16% of the state's population), the Jamatia, the Reang and the Noatia tribal communities. There is some tension between these native tribal populations and Bengali settlers in tribal areas.
Tripura ranks 22nd in the human resource development index and 24th in the poverty index in India according to 1991 sources. The literacy rate of Tripura is 73.66%, higher than the national rate of 65.20%.
The vast majority of people in Tripura, both Bengali and tribal, are adherents of an animist-Shaktism hybrid of Hinduism, which was the state religion under the Tripuri kings. Brahmin priests (called chantais) are regarded as custodians of dharma and occupy an exalted position in Tripura society. Important gods are Shiva and Tripureshwari (patron goddess of Tripura and an aspect of Shakti). Several fertility gods are also worshipped, such as Lam-Pra (the twin deities of sky and sea), Mailu-ma (goddess of corn, identified with Lakshmi), Khulu-ma (goddess of the cotton plant) and Burha-cha (god of healing). Durga Puja, Navaratri, Vijayadashami and the worship of the Chaturdasha deities are important festivals.

See also: Tripuri culture
Tripura has several diverse ethno-linguistic groups, which has given rise to a composite culture. The dominant culture is Bengali, while minority cultures are those of the Tripuris,Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Lushai, Mogh, Munda, Oraon, Santhal and Uchoi.
Tripura has a rich cultural heritage of music, fine arts, handicrafts and dance. Music is an integral part of the tribal people of Tripura. Some of their indigenous instruments are the sarinda, chongpreng and sumui (a kind of flute). Songs are sung during religious occasions, marriages and other festivals. Agricultural festivals are integral to the culture of the state.
Dance is important to the tribal way of life. Dances are performed during Goria Puja. Hojagiri dance is performed by standing on a pitcher and is performed by the Reang clans. The Bihu dance is performed by the Chakmas during Chaitra Sankranti (the last day of the month of Chaitra).

The state is located in the bio-geographic zone of 9B-North-East Hills and possesses an extremely rich bio-diversity. The local flora and faunal components of Indo-Malayan and Indo-Chinese sub-regions. There are 379 species of trees, 320 shrubs, 581 herbs, 165 climbers, 16-climbing shrubs, 35 ferns and 45 epiphytes.Wildlife sanctuaries of the state include Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary and Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary.

Flora and fauna
Tripura schools are run by the state government or by private organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali, though Kokborok and other tribal languages are also used. Secondary schools are affiliated with the CISCE, the CBSE, or the Tripura Board of Secondary Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for 2 years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility. Notable higher education institutions of Tripura are MBB College, National Institute of Technology and Tripura University, all located in Agartala.

Football and cricket are the most popular sports in the state. The state capital Agartala has its own club football championships every year where many local clubs compete in a league and knockout format.
Tripura participates as a Eastern state team in the Ranji Trophy, the Indian domestic Cricket competition. The state also is a regular participant of the Indian National Games and the North Eastern Games.


Tripura Police See also

Chaturdasha Temple
Jampui Hills
Rasu Kami
Tripura Sundari temple Notes

Jagadis Gan-Chaudhuri (1985), An Anthology of Tripura, Inter India Publications ISBN 8121000750
Roychoudhury, N.R. (1977), Tripura Through the Ages: A Short History of Tripura from the Earliest Times to 1947 A.D., Bureau of Research & Publications on Tripura.
Bhattacharjee, P.R. (1994), Economic Transition in Tripura (Hardcover), Vikas Publishing House ISBN 978-0706971712
Palit, P.K. (2004), History of Religion in Tripura (Hardcover) Kaveri Books ISBN 978-8174790644
Debbarma, Chandramani (2006), Glory of Tripura Civilisation Parul Prakashani, Agartala

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year. The project aims to provide a reliable basis for tracking and detecting trends in high-performance computing and bases rankings on HPL, a portable implementation of the High-Performance LINPACK benchmark for distributed-memory computers.
The TOP500 list is compiled by Hans Meuer of the University of Mannheim, Germany, Jack Dongarra of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Erich Strohmaier and Horst Simon of NERSC/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
The list is updated twice a year. The first of these updates always coincides with the International Supercomputer Conference in June, the second one is presented in November at the IEEE Super Computer Conference in the USA.

TOP500 Project History

IBM Blue Gene/L (since 2004.11)
NEC Earth Simulator (2002.06 - 2004.11)
IBM ASCI White (2000.11 - 2002.06)
Intel ASCI Red (1997.06 - 2000.11)
Hitachi CP-PACS (1996.11 - 1997.06)
Hitachi SR2201 (1996.06 - 1996.11)
Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel (1994.11 - 1996.06)
Intel Paragon XP/S140 (1994.06 - 1994.11)
Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel (1993.11 - 1994.06)
TMC CM-5 (1993.06 - 1993.11) The Systems Ranked #1 Since 1993
The following table gives the Top 10 positions of the 29th TOP500 List released during the International Supercomputing Conference (ISC07), June 26-29, 2007 in Dresden, Germany.

TOP500 Current List (June 2007)
Taken from the official TOP500 site:

While the No. 1 system is still unchallenged, the rest of the TOP10 experienced large changes since November 2006.
The new and previous No. 1 is DOE's IBM BlueGene/L system, installed at DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with a Linpack performance of 280.6 TFlop/s.
The upgraded Cray XT4/XT3 system at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the third system ever recorded to exceed the 100 TFlop/s mark. It is No2 with 101.7 Tflop/s.
It ever so slightly edged out Sandia's Cray Red Storm system, which holds the No. 3 spot with 101.4 TFlop/s.
Two new BlueGene/L systems entered the TOP10. They are both located in the state of New York and represent the largest academic supercomputer installations.
The No. 5 system is installed at Stony Brook, NY at the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) [4].
The No. 7 system at the Rensselaer Polytechnic at the Computational Center for Nanotechnology Innovations (CCNI), Troy, NY [5].
The new No.8 system was built by Dell and is installed at NCSA in Illinois. It was measured at 62.68 TFlop/s.
Just behind on No. 9 is the largest system in Europe, an IBM JS21 cluster installed at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center, with performance of 62.63 TFlop/s. It held the No 5 spot just 6 month ago.
The No. 10 was captured by a new SGI system installed in Germany at the Leibniz Computing Center in Munich. It was measured with 56.52 TFlop/s
The first Japanese system is at No. 14. It is a cluster integrated by NEC based on Sun Fire X4600 with Opteron processors, ClearSpeed accelerators and an InfiniBand interconnect, installed at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Trends
The MDGRAPE-3 supercomputer reportedly reached a one Petaflop calculation speed, faster than any of those on the TOP500 list, though it does not qualify as a general-purpose supercomputer, and cannot run the benchmarking software used to gauge the speeds computed for the list.
Grid computing systems are also not included on the list.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Staten Island (IPA: ˌstæt.ənˈaɪlənd) is a borough of New York City. Situated on an eponymous island, Staten Island is the most geographically separate and least populated of the five boroughs.
The Borough of Staten Island is coterminous with Richmond County, the southernmost county in the state of New York. Until 1975 the borough was officially named the Borough of Richmond. and there is already a plan in place to revitalize the land for park use in the years ahead.

The first recorded European contact with the island was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, who sailed through The Narrows. In 1609, Henry Hudson established Dutch trade in the area and named the island Staaten Eylandt after the Staten-Generaal, the Dutch parliament.
Although the first Dutch settlement of the New Netherlands colony was made on nearby Manhattan in 1620, Staaten Eylandt remained uncolonized by the Dutch for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, the Dutch made three separate attempts to establish a permanent settlement on the island, but each time the settlement was destroyed in the conflicts between the Dutch and the local tribes.
In 1661, the first permanent Dutch settlement was established at Oude Dorp (Dutch for "Old Town"), just south of the Narrows near South Beach, by a small group of Dutch Walloon and Huguenot families.

Richmond County
The island played a significant role in the American Revolutionary War. In the summer of 1776, the British forces under William Howe evacuated Boston and prepared to attack New York City. Howe used the strategic location of Staten Island as a staging ground for the attack. Howe established his headquarters in New Dorp at the Rose and Crown tavern near the junction of present New Dorp Lane and Amboy Road. It is here that the representatives of the British government reportedly received their first notification of the Declaration of Independence.
The following month, in August 1776, the British forces crossed the Narrows to Brooklyn and routed the American forces under George Washington at the Battle of Long Island, resulting in the British capture of New York. Three weeks later, on September 11, 1776, the British received a delegation of Americans consisting of Benjamin Franklin, Edward Rutledge, and John Adams at the Conference House on the southwestern tip of the island (known today as Tottenville) on the former estate of Christopher Billop. The Americans refused the peace offer from the British in exchange for the withdrawal of the Declaration of Independence, however, and the conference ended without an agreement.
On August 22, 1777, the Battle of Staten Island occurred here between the British and several companies of the 2nd Canadian Regiment fighting alongside other American companies. While the battle was inconclusive, with both sides surrendering over a hundred troops as prisoners, the Americans withdrew.
British forces remained on Staten Island throughout the war. Although local sentiment was predominantly Loyalist, the islanders found the demands of supporting the troops to be onerous. Many buildings and churches were destroyed, and the military demand for resources resulted in an extensive deforestation of the island by the end of the war. The British again used the island as a staging ground for their final evacuation of New York City on December 5, 1783. After the war, the largest Loyalist landowners fled to Canada and their estates were subdivided and sold.
On July 4, 1827, the end of slavery in New York state was celebrated at Swan Hotel, West Brighton. Rooms at the hotel were reserved months in advance as local abolitionists and prominent free blacks prepared for the festivities. Speeches, pageants, picnics, and fireworks marked the celebration, which lasted for two days.
In 1860, parts of Castleton and Southfield were made into a new town, Middletown. The Village of New Brighton in the town of Castleton was incorporated in 1866, and in 1872 the Village of New Brighton annexed all the remainder of the Town of Castleton and became coterminous with the town. New Brighton became the summer home of President Lincoln.

The Revolution and Nineteenth Century
These towns and villages were dissolved in 1898 with the consolidation of the City of Greater New York as Richmond as one of its five boroughs.
Except for the areas along the harbor, however, the borough remained relatively underdeveloped until the building of the Verrazano Narrows Bridge in 1964, which is considered the watershed event in the history of the borough, since it opened up the island to explosive suburban development by giving it direct road access to Brooklyn. The Verrazano, along with the other three major Staten Island bridges, created a new way for commuters and to travel from New Jersey to Brooklyn, Manhattan, and areas further east on Long Island. The network of highways running between the bridges has effectively carved up many of the borough's old neighborhoods. This road expansion was planned initially by Robert Moses.
Some of the island's open space and historic areas were incorporated in 1972 into Gateway National Recreation Area, part of the National Park System. The Staten Island Unit of Gateway NRA is joined by the Jamaica Bay Unit in Brooklyn and Queens and the Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey. The Staten Island Unit is comprised of Great Kills Park, Miller Field, Fort Wadsworth, Hoffman Island, and Swinburne Island.
Throughout the 1980s, a movement to secede from the city steadily grew in popularity, reaching its peak during the mayoral term of David Dinkins. The movement largely evaporated with Rudolph Giuliani's election as mayor in 1993, although some pro-secession sentiment remains.
In the 1980s, the United States Navy had a base on Staten Island called Naval Station New York. It was composed of two sections: a home port in Stapleton and a larger section around Fort Wadsworth, where the Verrazano Narrows Bridge enters the island. Originally, this base was to be the home port for the battleship USS Iowa (BB-61), but an explosion in one of the ship's turrets led to the vessel's decommissioning. A number of other vessels, including the frigates USS Donald B. Beary FF 1085 and USS Ainsworth FF 1090 and at least one cruiser, the USS Normandy (CG-60), were based there. The base was closed in 1994 through the Base Realignment and Closure process because of its small size and the expense of basing personnel there. A subsequent plan to use the site as a movie studio headed by actor and New York native Danny Aiello faltered due to money problems. It was recently announced that the property will be converted into a mixed-use waterfront neighborhood with an announced completion date of 2009.
For the last half of the twentieth century, Staten Island was arguably best known as the site of the Fresh Kills Landfill, the primary destination for garbage from the five boroughs of New York City and the largest single source of methane pollution in the world. The landfill was closed in early 2001 but was temporarily reopened later that year to receive the ruins of the World Trade Center after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and serve as a crime lab for police investigators searching for human remains..
Staten Island suffered a large proportion of the fatalities in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, as nearly 300 of the fatalities were Staten Island residents, many of whom were firefighters or office workers in the World Trade Center.
See also: Transportation in New York City

Consolidation with New York City
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough-county has a total area of 265.5 km² (102.5 mi²). Land comprises 151.5 km² (58.5 mi²) and water 114.0 km² (44.0 mi²) of it (42.95%).
Staten Island is separated from Long Island by the Narrows and from mainland New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull. It is connected to New Jersey via the Bayonne Bridge, the Outerbridge Crossing, the Goethals Bridge, and to Brooklyn by the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. The Staten Island Ferry connects the island to lower Manhattan. The Staten Island Railway traverses the island from its northeastern tip to its southwestern tip.
In addition to the main island, the borough and county also include several small uninhabited islands:
The highest point on the island, the summit of Todt Hill, elevation 410 ft (125 m), is also the highest point in the five boroughs, as well as the highest point on the Atlantic Coastal Plain south of Great Blue Hill in Massachusetts and the highest point on the coast proper south of Maine's Mount Desert Island.
In the late 1960s the island was the site of important battles of open-space preservation, resulting in the largest area of parkland in New York City and an extensive Greenbelt that laces the island with woodland trails.

The Isle of Meadow (at the mouth of Fresh Kills)
Pralls Island (in the Arthur Kill)
Shooters Island (in Newark Bay; part of it belongs to New Jersey)
Swinburne Island (in Lower New York Bay)
Hoffman Island (in Lower New York Bay) Geography
See also: List of Staten Island neighborhoods

Hudson County, New Jersey - north
Union County, New Jersey - west
Middlesex County, New Jersey - west
Kings County, New York - northeast Adjacent Counties

Main article: Government of Staten IslandStaten Island Government
The flag is on a white background in the center of which is the design of a seal in the shape of an oval. Within the seal appears the color blue to symbolize the skyline of the borough, in which two seagulls appear colored in black and white. The green outline represents the countryside of the borough with white outline denoting the residential areas of Staten Island. Below is inscribed the words "Staten Island" in gold. Below this are five wavy lines of blue to symbolize the water that surrounds the island borough on all sides. Gold fringe outlines the flag.
See also: Government of New York City

Staten Island Flag

Main article: Demographics of Staten Island Demographics

Staten Island is home to a variety of cultural centers and historical sites: the Alice Austen House Museum, the Conference House, the Garibaldi-Meucci Museum, Historic Richmond Town, Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, the Noble Maritime Collection, Sandy Ground Historical Museum, Snug Harbor Cultural Center, the Staten Island Children's Museum, and the Staten Island Museum. It has also been selected to become the future site of the National Lighthouse Museum. Additionally, the island is home to the Staten Island Zoo, which recently opened a newly refurbished reptile exhibit.
See also: Culture of New York City

Movies filmed partially or wholly on Staten Island include The Godfather; Working Girl; War of the Worlds; Sorry, Wrong Number; Sisters; Splendor in the Grass; GoodFellas; Donnie Brasco; Shamus; School of Rock; Two Family House; He Knows You're Alone; Analyze This; Big Daddy; The Astronaut's Wife; Scent of a Woman; Toxic Avenger; and Easy Money. Also independent films The Atomic Space Bug (1999), Stairwell: Trapped In The World Trade Center (2002) and A Conversation with Norman (2005) were filmed on Staten Island and directed by Jonathan M. Parisen as well as Combat Shock (1986) and No Way Home (1996) by Staten Island director Buddy Giovinazzo.
The movie School of Rock starring Jack Black was filmed all over Staten Island, including Wagner College, St. George Theater, Cargo Cafe, etc.
In the movie "Saturday Night Fever" the Verrazano Bridge which connects from Brooklyn to Staten Island is shown in some key scenes in the movie.
The movie Joe the King was filmed in the area of New Dorp in Staten Island. It was filmed in several places including Miller Field and Staten Island Technical High School.
The horror movie "Maniac" 1980 starring Joe Spinell was filmed on Staten Island.
Sisters, the 1973 Brian de Palma thriller starring Margot Kidder and Jennifer Salt, takes place on Staten Island and was largely filmed there.
In the movie, How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days, the character Ben takes Kate Hudson's character to visit his family on Staten Island.
The music video for the song "Papa Don't Preach" by Madonna was shot at various Staten Island locations, including the stairs leading up to the Stapleton train platform and the white picket fenced house on Ward Hill is on Edgar Terrace. Also, the "You Get What You Give" video by the New Radicals was partially filmed at the Staten Island Mall.
Television series shot partially or wholly on Staten Island include The Education of Max Bickford and The Book of Daniel.
FOX and WB sitcom Grounded for Life is about a family living in Staten Island.
The characters of the NBC sitcom Will & Grace, have traveled to Staten Island in two episodes:
The NBC Crime Drama Law & Order and its spin-offs have used Staten Island locations in many episodes. In an episode of Law & Order: SVU, the detectives go into a fictionalized parking garage in the Staten Island Mall. There is no garage at the Staten Island Mall.
Banishment to Staten Island was once a common threat in the New York City uniformed services, and is reflected in both film and television. In Arsenic and Old Lace an officer is threatened with walking a beat on Staten Island. On Law & Order, Detective Mike Logan (played by Chris Noth) is sent to Staten Island for punching a councilman. The title character in Barney Miller dreaded the thought of being transferred to Staten Island. On The Honeymooners Ralph resists being reassigned to a Staten Island bus route. And Denis Leary's character, Tommy Gavin, on Rescue Me also does time working in a firehouse on Staten Island. This theme was also used on other TV shows such as The Odd Couple, Car 54 Where Are You?, Welcome Back Kotter, Sex in the City, Seinfeld, All in the Family and even the Andy Griffith Show. The Sopranos also used some areas of Staten Island and Staten Island Academy to film certain scenes.
The Elegants featuring Vito Picone had a #1 song in 1958 called "Little Star". The song was recorded in a South Beach Staten Island recording studio.
John Lennon's Live in New York album was a live recording of his "One to One" concert at Madison Square Garden on August 30, 1972. The concert was a fundraiser for the mentally-challenged children, inspired by the horrid conditions at Willowbrook State School. The album also features Staten Island guitar player Earl Slick. The Willowbrook issue was initially exposed by the Staten Island Advance and brought to Lennon's attention by his friend and broadcast journalist Geraldo Rivera who covered the story for WABC-TV, New York.

In the second-season episode Terms Of Employment, Karen and Jack attempt to film an employee training video in a studio in Staten Island. Karen makes a reference to the Fresh Kills Landfill (closed since 2001), and the population of largely working-class families.
In the eighth-season episode The Old Man And The Sea, Grace brings Karen and Malcolm with her on a blind date in Staten Island. Major thoroughfares such as Victory Boulevard and Richmond Avenue are mentioned. Media

Christina Aguilera - Pop singer. Born on Staten Island.
Jeff Ahearn - producer/director/writer for MTV Cribs
Armand Assante - Actor, resided in Staten Island.
Teddy Atlas - Boxing trainer
Rich Aurilia - All Star Shortstop, San Francisco Giants grew up on Staten Island.
Alice Austen - Photographer, lived all of her life on Staten Island. A Staten Island Ferry is named for her
Joan Baez - folk singer
Renaldo Balkman - New York Knicks 2006 First Round Draft Pick, Born on Staten Island
Vito Bratta - guitarist for White Lion lives on Staten Island
Jerry Butler Paul Seiderman - famous adult film star.
Cynthia von Buhler - Artist, children's book author. Currently resides in Staten Island.
Marcia Clark - Famed Prosecutor, was involved in the famous O.J. Simpson trial, graduated from Susan E. Wagner High School
Bobby Darin - singer, his family had a summer home as a child in South Beach, Staten Island.
Evan Dorkin - Cartoonist and creator of Milk & Cheese is a long time resident of Staten Island
Clem Caserta - actor and Eltingville, Staten Island resident. Jimmy Whispers in A Bronx Tale, also was in GoodFellas, The Untouchables.
Paul Castellano- Gambino Crime Boss, lived in the Todt Hill, Staten Island section
Joe Causi - Disc Jockey, raised in Brooklyn, currently lives on Staten Island
Roy Clark - Country singer, Hee Haw star, and guitarist, actually grew up in Great Kills, Staten Island
Eric Close - Actor who plays "Martin Fitzgerald" on the CBS drama Without a Trace
Ichabod Crane, a Colonel in the US Army during the War of 1812 and the nominal inspiration for the fictional protagonist in Washington Irving's Legend of Sleepy Hollow, who is buried in Staten Island, New York
Ron Dante singer from The Archies, big hit was Sugar Sugar.
John Dehner - Television and movie actor born on Staten Island. A notable and one of Hollywoods best character actors, Dehner played Doris Day's boss Sy Bennett on the Doris Day Show. He appeared in three classic Twilight Zone episodes and other movies and television shows. Western fans came to know Dehner as "Paladin" on radio's "Have Gun, Will Travel" in his radio days.
Steven Duren - Better known as Blackie Lawless, lead singer of the 1980s heavy metal band W.A.S.P. Lawless, who is a friend of fellow Staten Islander David Johansen, replaced Johnny Thunders in the New York Dolls when he was 18.
Eamon Doyle rapper, born and raised on Staten Island
Judge William Emerson, brother of poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, resided on what is now known as Emerson Hill.
Jennifer Esposito - actress Spin City, Summer of Sam attended Moore Catholic High School
Joey Faye vaudeville comic and character actor lived in Great Kills for years.
Force MD's born and raised on Staten Island had a top ten song Tender Love in 1986, produced by longtime Janet Jackson producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis
John Franco - Former New York Mets pitcher
Giuseppe Garibaldi - 19th century Italian revolutionary and statesman, lived for a time on Staten Island, and worked as a candle-maker
Sandy Gennaro - famed drummer
Ghostface Killah - rapper born on Staten Island.
Buddy Giovinazzo - Actor/Director/Writer who directed the cult films Combat Shock and No Way Home
Carmine Giovinazzo - Actor who plays Detective Danny Messer on the CBS drama CSI: NY. He is a cousin of director Buddy Giovinazzo.
Sammy "The Bull" Gravano - mob turncoat lived on Staten Island
David Guida - Television writer/producer, professional gamer
Brian Guzman - actor born in West Brighton, St. Peters High School
Larry Harmon- Bozo the Clown lives on Staten Island
Patti Hansen - Famous model and wife to The Rolling Stones' Keith Richards
George Harrison of the Beatles briefly lived in Staten Island near Staten Island University Hospital while being treated for cancer there.
Allen Jenkins - famed Hollywood character actor, voice of cartoon Top Cat's Officer Dibble was born on Staten Island.
David Johansen (aka Buster Poindexter) of the New York Dolls
Hassan Johnson - Actor, featured in The Wire, Belly, etc.
Sukanya Krishnan - Home Delivery host and news anchor for WB11 Morning News grew up on Staten Island and graduted from New Dorp High School.
Lil' Suzy, freestyle singer
Paul Land actor Spring Break, The Idolmaker
Robert Loggia - Actor (Scarface, The Sopranos, Big, etc.)
Vito LoGrasso - WWE wrestler hails from Staten Island
Ki Longfellow, novelist, born on Staten Island.
Madonna - lived in the Stapleton area briefly. Her video "Papa Don't Preach" was filmed there. Madonna chose the location herself. She said the neighborhood was perfect premise for the video story.
Oleg Maskaev - Heavyweight Boxing Champion
Method Man- Clifford Smith - Rapper/Wu-Tang Clan member (aka Method Man) was raised in Staten Island
Antonio Meucci - disputed inventor of the telephone, immigrated to Staten Island, settling in the Clifton area in 1850, where he would live for the remainder of his life.
Alyssa Milano - Actress, she was raised on Staten Island.
Sudsy Monchik- 5-Time Pro World Champion racquetball player.
Paul Newman - lived on Staten Island in St. George, Staten Island
Adewale Ogunleye- Chicago Bears Defensive End, formerly played for Indiana University and Tottenville High School
Chris Paciello-famous Miami nightclub owner, was raised on Staten Island
Jonathan M. Parisen - Filmmaker, was born and raised on Staten Island
Edward Platt - born on Staten Island. Actor who played "The Chief" on the 1960s TV show Get Smart
A.J. Pero - drummer for Twisted Sister
Joe Pistone - FBI agent aka Donnie Brasco lived in Staten Island for a brief period.
Thommy Price - former Patty Smyth and Scandal and Billy Idol drummer
Robin Quivers- radio personality from the Howard Stern show lives on Staten Island
Larry Romano - actor The King of Queens, NYPD Blue
Kevin Rooney former manager of Mike Tyson lived on Staten Island
Gianni Russo - Actor was raised on Staten Island. Gianni played Carlo Rizzi in The Godfather
Randy Savage - Former Professional wrestler known as "Macho Man" now resides in Staten Island
Glenn Scarpelli - child actor from One Day at a Time born and raised in Staten Island
Francesco Scavullo - famous photographer. born on Staten Island.
Steven R. Schirripa - Bobby Bacala from The Sopranos
Rick Schroder - Actor who played "Ricky Stratton" on the 1980s NBC sitcom Silver Spoons and "Detective Danny Sorenson" on the ABC drama NYPD Blue, and has recently played "Mike Doyle" on "24". Currently appearing as "Dr. Dylan West" on the Lifetime drama Strong Medicine
Steven Seagal - Actor, lived on Staten Island
Raymond Serra - Actor, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles movies, Gotti
Martin Sheen - lived on Staten Island in St. George
Earl Slick - famous guitarist
Peter Steele - Lead singer and bassist for the gothic-doom band Type O Negative
Theodore Sturgeon - Science fiction author
Kasim Sulton - musician
Henry David Thoreau spent his longest time away from Concord, Massachusetts on Staten Island in the 1840s. While on the island, he tutored the children of Judge William Emerson and penned several letters to Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson himself spent a significant amount of time on the island as well.
Daniel D. Tompkins, was the sixth Vice President of the United States, an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and established Tompkinsville in Staten Island and the Staten Island Ferry.
Cornelius Vanderbilt - 19th century shipping and railroad magnate and patriarch of the Vanderbilt family, was born, and lived most of his life on, Staten Island. He is buried in the family vault in the Moravian Cemetery at New Dorp on Staten Island.
Lenny Venito - actor Murmur from The Sopranos, Gigli, War of the Worlds
John Wolyniec - forward for MLS side Red Bull New York
Wu Tang Clan - Hip-hop group; 4 of the 9 are from Staten Island. Credited with giving Staten Island the nickname 'Shaolin'
Paul Zindel - Novelist and playwright
Darren Passarello- Also know as Nitro G. On the first Season Of the TV show Who Wants to Be a Superhero? Notable Natives and Residents
See also: Sports in New York City

Staten Island Yankees, New York-Penn League baseball, Class A Minor League affiliate to the New York Yankees
Staten Island Yankees who made it to the big leagues: Jason Anderson, Andy Phillips, Melky Cabrera, Brandon Claussen, Wily Mo Pena, Robinson Cano, Chien-Ming Wang, Brad Halsey, John-Ford Griffin
The New York Metropolitans of the American Association played baseball on Staten Island from April 1886 through 1887. Erastus Wiman, the developer of St. George, brought the team to Staten Island where they played in a stadium near the site of the current-day Staten Island Yankees stadium and the Staten Island Ferry terminal.
Wagner College participates in Division I athletics.
Former NBA Basketball coach P.J. Carlesimo coached the Wagner College Basketball team the "Seahawks".
Terry Crowley baseball player, member of the 1970 World Champs Baltimore Orioles
Matt Galante - former baseball coach for New York Mets and Houston Astros lives in Annadale, Staten Island
Staten Island formerly had a professional football team which was a member of the NFL called the Staten Island Stapes. They were based in Stapleton. Their stadium was called Thompson's Stadium which was located on the site of present Berta A. Dreyfus Intermediate School 49 and the Stapleton Houses. They faced many other teams that still exist today. Football Hall of Famer Ken Strong played for the Stapes.
New York Predators Semi Pro football team calls Staten Island it's home since it's inception in 1998 owned by Bill Simo [1] plays most homes games in Alumni Stadium on the grounds of Monsignor Farrell H.S.
George Bamberger, a baseball player and manager. He spent most of his playing career pitching in the Minor Leagues. He spent only three seasons in the Major Leagues with the New York Giants (1951-1952), and with the 1959 Baltimore Orioles. He had a record of 458–478 as manager of the Milwaukee Brewers (1978-1980, 1985-1986) and the New York Mets (1982-1983). Bamberger as a pitching coach for the Baltimore Orioles would teach his famed pitch "The Staten Island Sinker".
Bill Britton - Pro golfer was born and raised on Staten Island. Graduate of Monsignor Farrell High School.
Johnny "The Heat" Verderosa - former pro boxer
Silvia Fontana, Italian figure skater in the 2002 and 2006 Winter Olympic Games, was born in Staten Island on December 3, 1976.
Gary Stark Jr. - Pro Boxer
Rich Kotite - former Philadelphia Eagles and New York Jets head coach, and New York Giants player lives in West Brighton, Staten Island.
Hank Majeski - MLB infielder. Born and raised in Staten Island
Pete Mikklesen - New York Yankee and Los Angeles Dodgers relief specialist.
There was a controversial plan by the International Speedway Corporation to build a speedway on the island that would host NASCAR races by 2010. ISC abandoned the plan in 2006, citing financial concerns.
Jason Marquis, starting pitcher for the Chicago Cubs, went to Tottenville High School in Staten Island.
Nick Fotiu was the first player ever from Staten Island to play hockey for the hometown New York Rangers.
Pro Bowlers Johnny Petraglia and Mark Roth both resided in Staten Island.
In 1964 Staten Island's Mid Island Little League won the Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania
Mookie Wilson - New York Mets outfielder lived on Staten Island
Joe Andruzzi - Cleveland Browns Offensive Lineman. Has 3 Super Bowl rings with the New England Patriots.
Mike Siani - standout wide receiver for Villanova and number 1 draft choice for the Oakland Raiders was born and raised on Staten Island.
The Mid-Island Little League from Staten Island advanced to the 2006 Little League World Series and won the LLWS in 1964.
Dino Mangiero - Defensive Tackle for the Kansas City Chiefs in the 80's.
Dennis McKnight - Graduated from Susan Wagner H.S. played 9 seasons in the NFL mostly with the San Diego Chargers in the 80's. Now serves as the Specials teams aOffensive line coach at the University of Hawaii
William Shakespeare (football) - Halfback at Notre Dame and member of College Football Hall of Fame
Adewale Ogunleye - #93 for the Chicago Bears, went to Tottenville High School
Frank Ferrara - New Dorp H.S., Played for the New York Giants for four seasons and Philadelphia Eagles. Now Plays for the Arena team New York Dragons after a stint in the CFL
James Jenkins - Curtis H.S., Rutgers, and TE for the Washington Redskins for 10 seasons*Frank Menichino - Susan Wagner H.S., Alabama , 10 seasons MLB most notably for the Oakland Athletics
Sean Madigan - Founder and creator of BIG JKD. Certified in Jeet Kune Do by Bruce Lee student Steve Golden.
Billy Donovan - coach of the Florida Gators played AAU basketball on Staten island. The team was the Staten Island Stallions,
Jennifer Derevjanik- Plays for the pheonix Mercury in the WNBA, former ST. Peters player Education

Sunday, August 26, 2007

For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela (disambiguation).
Sharpeville Massacre · Soweto uprising Treason Trial Rivonia Trial · Church Street bombing CODESA · St James Church massacre ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB PP · RP ·PRP· PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF Broederbond · National Party · COSATU
PW Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan Nelson Mandela · Mahatma Gandhi · Walter Sisulu Helen Suzman · Harry Schwarz · Andries Treurnicht HF Verwoerd · Oliver Tambo · BJ VorsterNelson Mandela Kaiser Matanzima · Jimmy Kruger · Steve Biko Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island Sophiatown · South-West Africa Soweto · Vlakplaas
Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document Disinvestment campaign South African Police
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (IPA: /roli'ɬaɬa/) (born 18 July 1918) is the former President of South Africa, and the first to be elected in fully representative democratic elections through being a former terrorist. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress. He spent nearly three decades in prison for his struggle against apartheid.
Through his 27 years in prison, much of it spent in a cell on Robben Island, Mandela became the most widely known figure in the struggle against apartheid. Among opponents of apartheid in South Africa and internationally, he became a cultural icon as a proponent of freedom and equality.
The apartheid government and nations sympathetic to it condemned him and the ANC as communists and terrorists, and he became a figure of hatred among many South African whites, supporters of apartheid, and opponents of the ANC.
Following his release from prison in 1990, his switch to a policy of reconciliation and negotiation helped lead the transition to multi-racial democracy in South Africa. Since the end of apartheid, he has been widely praised, even among white South Africans and former opponents.
Mandela has received more than one hundred awards over four decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. He is currently a celebrated elder statesman who continues to voice his opinion on topical issues. In South Africa he is often known as Madiba, an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela's clan. The title has come to be synonymous with Nelson Mandela. Mandela, on his 89th birthday launched an initiative called Global Elders, a group of 12 wise men and women, who will address global problems by offering expertise and guidance.

Early life
Mandela belongs to a cadet branch of the Thembu dynasty which (nominally) reigns in the Transkeian Territories of the Union of South Africa's Cape Province. He was born in the small village of Qunu in the district of Mthatha, the Transkei capital. His great-grandfather was Ngubengcuka (died 1832), the Inkosi Enkhulu or King of the Thembu people, who were eventually subjected to British colonial rule. One of the king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname. However, being only the Inkosi's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan (the so-called "Left-Hand House"), the descendants of his branch of the royal family were not eligible to succeed to the Thembu throne.

Birth and lineage
At seven years of age, Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend a school, where he was given the name "Nelson," after the British admiral Horatio Nelson, by a Methodist teacher who found it difficult to pronounce Mandela's native name.
His father died of tuberculosis when Rolihlahla was nine, and the Regent, Jongintaba, became his guardian. Mandela attended a Wesleyan mission school next door to the palace of the Regent. Following Thembu custom, he was initiated at age sixteen, and attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute. He completed his Junior Certificate in two years, instead of the usual three. Destined to inherit his father's position as a privy councillor, in 1937 Mandela moved to Healdtown, the Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort which most Thembu royalty attended. Aged nineteen, he took an interest in boxing and running.
After matriculating, he started to study for a B.A. at the Fort Hare University, where he met Oliver Tambo, and the two became lifelong friends and colleagues. At the end of his first year, he became involved in a boycott by the Students' Representative Council against the university policies, and was asked to leave Fort Hare.
Later, while imprisoned, Mandela studied for a Bachelor of Laws from the University of London External Programme (see below).

Shortly after leaving Fort Hare, Jongintaba announced to Mandela and Justice (the Regent's own son and heir to the throne) that he had arranged marriages for both of them. Both young men were displeased by this and rather than marry, they elected to flee the comforts of the Regent's estate to go to Johannesburg. Upon his arrival, Mandela initially found employment as a guard at a mine. However, this was quickly terminated after the employer learned that Mandela was the Regent's runaway adopted son. He later started work as an articled clerk at a law firm thanks to connections with his friend and fellow lawyer Walter Sisulu. While working there, he completed his BA degree at the University of South Africa (UNISA) via correspondence, after which he started with his law studies at the University of Witwatersrand. During this time Mandela lived in Alexandra township, north of Johannesburg.

Move to Johannesburg
After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party with its apartheid policy of racial segregation, Mandela was prominent in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental program of the anti-apartheid cause. During this time, Mandela and fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo operated the law firm of Mandela and Tambo, providing free or low-cost legal counsel to many blacks who would otherwise have been without legal representation.
Mandela's approach was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, who inspired him and succeeding generations of South African anti-apartheid activists.
Initially committed to non-violent mass struggle, Mandela was arrested with 150 others on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. The marathon Treason Trial of 1956-61 followed, and all were acquitted. From 1952-59 the ANC experienced disruption as a new class of Black activists (Africanists) emerged in the townships demanding more drastic steps against the National Party regime. The ANC leadership of Albert Luthuli, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu felt not only that events were moving too fast, but also that their leadership was challenged. They consequently bolstered their position by alliances with small White, Coloured and Indian political parties in an attempt to appear to have a wider appeal than the Africanists. The 1955 Freedom Charter Kliptown Conference was ridiculed by the Africanists for allowing the 100,000-strong ANC to be relegated to a single vote in a Congress alliance, in which four secretaries-general of the five participating parties were members of the secretly reconstituted South African Communist Party (SACP), strongly adhering to the Moscow line.
In 1959 the ANC lost its most militant support when most of the Africanists, with financial support from Ghana and significant political support from the Transvaal-based Basotho, broke away to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) under Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo.

Political activity
In 1961, Mandela became the leader of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated as Spear of the Nation, also abbreviated as MK), which he co-founded. He co-ordinated a sabotage campaign against military and government targets, and made plans for a possible guerrilla war if sabotage failed to end apartheid. A few decades later, MK did indeed wage a guerrilla war against the regime, especially during the 1980s, in which many civilians were killed. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad, and arranged for paramilitary training, visiting various African governments.
Mandela explains the move to embark on armed struggle as a last resort, when increasing repression and violence from the state convinced him that many years of non-violent protest against apartheid had achieved nothing and could not succeed.

Guerrilla activities

Main article: Rivonia Trial Arrest and Rivonia trial
Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he was destined to remain for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. On the island, he and others performed hard labour in a lime quarry. Prison conditions were very basic. Prisoners were segregated by race, with black prisoners receiving the fewest rations. Political prisoners were kept separate from ordinary criminals and received fewer privileges. Mandela describes how, as a D-group prisoner (the lowest classification) he was allowed one visitor and one letter every six months. Letters, when they came, were often delayed for long periods and made unreadable by the prison censors.
Throughout Mandela's imprisonment, local and international pressure mounted on the South African government to release him, under the resounding slogan Free Nelson Mandela! In 1989, South Africa reached a crossroads when Botha suffered a stroke and was replaced as president by Frederik Willem de Klerk. De Klerk announced Mandela's release in February 1990.

On 2 February 1990, State President F.W. de Klerk unbanned the ANC and other anti-apartheid organisations, and announced that Mandela would shortly be released from prison. Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990.
On the day of his release, Mandela made a speech to the nation. He declared his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the country's white minority, but made it clear that the ANC's armed struggle was not yet over:
He also said his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in both national and local elections.


Main article: Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa Negotiations
Mandela's autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, was published in 1994. Mandela had begun work on it secretly while in prison. In that book Mandela did not reveal anything about the alleged complicity of F.W. de Klerk in the violence of the eighties and nineties, or the role of his ex-wife Winnie Mandela in that bloodshed. However, he later co-operated with his friend the journalist Anthony Sampson who discussed those issues in Mandela: The Authorised Biography. Another detail that Mandela omitted was the allegedly fraudulent book, Goodbye Bafana. Its author, Robben Island warder James Gregory, claimed to have been Mandela's confidante in prison and published details of the prisoner's family affairs. Sampson maintained that Mandela had not known Gregory well, but that Gregory censored the letters sent to the future president and thus discovered the details of Mandela's personal life. Sampson also averred that other warders suspected Gregory of spying for the government and that Mandela considered suing Gregory.

South Africa's first democratic elections in which full enfranchisement was granted were held on 27 April 1994. The ANC won 62% of the majority votes in the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's first black President, with the National Party's de Klerk as his deputy president in the Government of National Unity.

Presidency of South Africa
As President from May 1994 until June 1999, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid, winning international respect for his advocacy of national and international reconciliation.
Nelson Mandela encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated Springboks (the South African national rugby team) as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand, Nelson Mandela wearing a Springbok shirt presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner. This was widely seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans.
After assuming the presidency, one of Mandela's trademarks was his use of Batik shirts, known as "Madiba shirts", even on formal occasions.

Policy of reconciliation
In South Africa's first post-apartheid military operation, Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to protect the government of Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili. This came after a disputed election prompted fierce opposition threatening the unstable government.

Criticism of AIDS response
President Mandela took a particular interest in helping to resolve the long-running dispute between Gaddafi's Libya, on the one hand, and the United States and Britain on the other, over bringing to trial the two Libyans who were indicted in November 1991 and accused of sabotaging Pan Am Flight 103, which crashed at the Scottish town of Lockerbie on 21 December 1988, with the loss of 270 lives. As early as 1992, Mandela informally approached President George Bush with a proposal to have the two indicted Libyans tried in a third country. Bush reacted favourably to the proposal, as did President Mitterrand of France and King Juan Carlos of Spain. And, in November 1994 – six months after his election as president – Mandela formally proposed that South Africa should be the venue for the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial. However, British Prime Minister, John Major, flatly rejected the idea saying the British government did not have confidence in foreign courts On 28 June 2007 the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission referred his case back to the Scottish High Court of Justiciary for a fresh appeal.

Lockerbie trial
Mandela has been married three times, has fathered six children, has twenty grandchildren, and a growing number of great-grandchildren. His grandson is Chief Mandla Mandela.

Marriage and family
Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase who, like Mandela, was also from what later became the Transkei area of South Africa, although they actually met in Johannesburg. The couple had two sons, Madiba Thembekile (Thembi) (born 1946) and Makgatho (born 1950), and two daughters, both named Makaziwe (known as Maki; born 1947 and 1953). Their first daughter died aged nine months, and they named their second daughter in her honour. The couple broke up in 1957 after 13 years, divorcing under the multiple strains of his constant absences, devotion to revolutionary agitation, and the fact she was a Jehovah's Witness, a religion which requires political neutrality. Thembi was killed in a car crash in 1969 at the age of 25, while Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island. All their children were educated at the Waterford Kamhlaba. Evelyn Mase died in 2004.

First marriage
Mandela's second wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, also came from the Transkei area, although they, too, met in Johannesburg, where she was the city's first black social worker. They had two daughters, Zenani (Zeni), born 4 February 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi), born 1960. Later, Winnie would be deeply torn by family discord which mirrored the country's political strife; while her husband was serving a life sentence on the Robben Island prison, her father became the agriculture minister in the Transkei. The marriage ended in separation (April 1992) and divorce (March 1996), fuelled by political estrangement.
Mandela still languished in prison when his daughter Zenani was married to Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini in 1973, elder brother of King Mswati III of Swaziland. As a member by marriage of a reigning foreign dynasty, she was able to visit her father during his South African imprisonment while other family members were denied access. The Dlamini couple live and run a business in Boston. One of their sons, Prince Cedza Dlamini (born 1976), educated in the United States, has followed in his grandfather's footsteps as an international advocate for human rights and humanitarian aid. Thumbumuzi and Mswati's sister, Princess Mantfombi Dlamini, is the chief consort to King Goodwill Zwelithini of KwaZulu-Natal, who "reigns but does not rule" over South Africa's largest ethnic group under the auspices of South Africa's government. One of Queen Mantfombi's sons is expected to eventually succeed Goodwill as monarch of the Zulus, whose Inkatha Party leader, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, was the rival of Mandela during much of his presidency.

Second marriage
Mandela himself was re-married in 1998, on his 80th birthday, to Graça Machel née Simbine, widow of Samora Machel, the former Mozambican president and ANC ally killed in an air crash 12 years earlier. The wedding followed months of international negotiations to set the unprecedented bride-price remitted to her clan, which were conducted on Mandela's behalf by his traditional sovereign, King Buyelekhaya Zwelibanzi Dalindyebo, born 1964. Ironically, it was this paramount chief's grandfather, the Regent Jongintaba, whose selection of a bride for him prompted Mandela to flee to Johannesburg as a young man.
Mandela still maintains a home at Qunu in the realm of his royal nephew (second cousin thrice-removed in Western reckoning), whose university expenses he defrayed and whose privy councillor he remains.

Third marriage
Mandela became the oldest elected President of South Africa when he took office at the age of 77 in 1994. He decided not to stand for a second term as President, and instead retired in 1999, to be succeeded by Thabo Mbeki.

In July 2001 Mandela was diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer. He was treated with a seven week course of radiation.

After his retirement as President, Mandela went on to become an advocate for a variety of social and human rights organisations. He has expressed his support for the international Make Poverty History movement of which the ONE Campaign is a part.
For seventeen days, they are bunkmates.
For seventeen days, they are soulmates.
And for twenty-two seconds, they are competitors.
Seventeen days as equals. Twenty-two seconds as adversaries.
What a wonderful world that would be.
That's the hope I see in the Olympic Games.
The Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament, hosted by Gary Player, has raised over R 20 million for children's charities since its inception in 2000. This annual special event has become South Africa's most successful charitable sports gathering and benefits both the Nelson Mandela Childrens Fund and Gary Player Foundation equally for various childrens causes around the world.

Public activities
On 18 July 2007, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened a group of world leaders in Johannesburg to contribute their wisdom, independent leadership and integrity to tackle some of the world's toughest problems. Nelson Mandela announced the formation of this new group, The Elders, in a speech he delivered on the occasion of his 89th birthday.
The Elders will be independently funded by a group of Founders, including Richard Branson, Peter Gabriel, Ray Chambers; Michael Chambers; Bridgeway Foundation; Pam Omidyar, Humanity United; Amy Robbins; Shashi Ruia, Dick Tarlow; and The United Nations Foundation.

The Elders
Since his retirement, one of Mandela's primary commitments has been to the fight against AIDS. In 2003, he had already lent his support to the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign, named after his prison number. In July 2004, he flew to Bangkok to speak at the XV International AIDS Conference. His son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS on 6 January 2005.

AIDS engagement
In 2003 Mandela criticised the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration in a number of speeches. Criticising the lack of UN involvement in the decision to begin the War in Iraq, he said, "It is a tragedy, what is happening, what Bush is doing. But Bush is now undermining the United Nations". Mandela stated he would support action against Iraq only if it is ordered by the UN.

Iraq invasion views
Further information: Ismail Ayob
Ismail Ayob was a trusted friend and personal attorney of Mandela for over 30 years. In May 2005, Ayob was asked by Mandela to stop selling prints signed by Mandela and to account for the proceeds of their sale. This bitter dispute led to an extensive, and prominently publicised application to the High Court of South Africa by Mandela that year.

Ismail Ayob controversy
Ayob, George Bizos and Wim Trengrove were trustees of the Nelson Mandela Trust, which was set up to hold millions of rands donated to Nelson Mandela by prominent business figures, including the Oppenheimer family, for the benefit of his children and grandchildren.

In a The New Republic article in December 2006, Nelson Mandela was criticised for a number of positive comments he had made about the diamond industry, specifically regarding blood diamonds. In a letter to Edward Zwick, the director of the motion picture Blood Diamond, Mandela had noted that:
" would be deeply regrettable if the making of the film inadvertently obscured the truth, and, as a result, led the world to believe that an appropriate response might be to cease buying mined diamonds from Africa. ... We hope that the desire to tell a gripping and important real life historical story will not result in the destabilization of African diamond producing countries, and ultimately their peoples."
The New Republic article claims that this comment, as well as various pro-diamond-industry initiatives and statements during his life and during his time as a president of South Africa, were influenced by both his friendship with Harry Oppenheimer, former chairman of De Beers, as well as an outlook for 'narrow national interests' of South Africa (which is a major diamond producer).

Blood Diamond controversy
Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe who has led the country since independence in 1980, has been widely criticised internationally for the 1980s slaughter of 20,000 Matabele people as well as corruption, incompetent administration, political oppression and cronyism that has ultimately led to the economic collapse of the country.
Mandela criticised Mugabe's government in 2000,

Zimbabwe and Robert Mugabe


Main article: List of awards and honours bestowed on Nelson Mandela Orders and decorations
Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. One of the most popular was from the The Specials who recorded the song Nelson Mandela in 1983. Stevie Wonder dedicated his 1985 Oscar for the song I Just Called to Say I Love You to Mandela, resulting in his music being banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation.
In 2003, Mandela lent his weight to the 46664 campaign against AIDS, named after his prison number. Many prominent musicians performed in concerts as part of this the campaign.
A summary of Mandela's life story is featured in the 2006 music video If Everyone Cared by Nickelback.

Musical tributes
In 1997, the film Mandela and De Klerk told the story of Mandela's release from prison. Mandela was played by Sidney Poitier. Goodbye Bafana, a feature film that focuses on Mandela's life, had its world premiere at the Berlin film festival on 11 February 2007. The film starred Dennis Haysbert as Mandela and chronicled Mandela's relationship with prison guard James Gregory.
In the final scene of the 1992 movie Malcolm X, Mandela – recently released after 27 years of political imprisonment – appears as a schoolteacher in a Soweto classroom. He recites a portion of one of Malcolm X's most famous speeches, including the following sentence: "We declare our right on this earth to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence..." The final phrase of that sentence is "by any means necessary." Mandela informed director Spike Lee that he could not utter this phrase on camera, stating that the apartheid government would somehow use it against him if he did. Lee understandingly obliged, and the final seconds of the film feature black-and-white footage of the real Malcolm X speaking the words "by any means necessary".

Marianne Williamson quotation

Anthony Sampson; Mandela: The Authorised Biography; ISBN 0-679-78178-1 (1999)
Nelson Mandela; Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela; Little Brown & Co; ISBN 0-316-54818-9 (paperback, 1995)
Mary Benson; Nelson Mandela: The Man and the Movement
Martin Meredith; Nelson Mandela: A Biography
Barry Denenberg; Nelson Mandela: No Easy Walk To Freedom
Charlene Smith; Mandela: In Celebration of a Great Life
Juckes, Tim. Opposition in South Africa: The Leadership of Matthews, Nelson Mandela, and Stephen Biko. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
Villa-Vicencio, Charles. The Spirit of Freedom. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1996.
Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler; Mandela: The Man, The Struggle, The Triumph
A Prisoner in the Garder Penguin Books ISBN 0-143-02495-7
Anne Marie du Preez Bezdrob. The Nelson Mandela Story Samoja Books ISBN 0-620-36570-6