Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Marcos Martinez Ucha
Marcos Martinez Ucha (born October 15, 1985 in Madrid, Spain) is a professional racecar driver. Martinez Ucha competed in karting events from 1998 until 2002, when he entered Spanish Formula Junior. He would stay there with moderate success for three years, moving to Spanish Formula Three in 2005 with the team Racing Engineering and reaching the 2nd place in the B-Class. In 2006 he jumped to the A-Class, managing an outstanding victory in Cheste, Valencia. Meanwhile he participated in three races in the World Series by Renault, where he managed to start forth in the grid and run in the 2nd position in one of the races. In 2007, he began racing Spanish Formula Three with a new team, Novoteam. After 3 meetings and due to the results obtained he changed to Tec-Auto searching for an improvement in the championship.
He was due to take part in the latter part of the 2007 GP2 Series season for the Racing Engineering team, alongside Javier Villa and replacing Ernesto Viso. However, he will not compete in the races of the first meeting he has entered for, as he failed to lap within 107% of the pole position time after problems in qualifying.

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Gibraltar
Coordinates: 36°8′18″N, 5°21′15″W
The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Gibraltar is the cathedral for the Church of England Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe. It is sometimes referred to simply as Gibraltar Cathedral, although it should not be confused with the Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned, which is Gibraltar's Roman Catholic cathedral. The Cathedral is particularly notable for its imitation of Moorish architecture (appropriate given the period of Moorish control in Gibraltar's history), particularly in its use of horseshoe arches.

20th Century

List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom

Monday, October 29, 2007

Rochester Cathedral is a Norman church in Rochester, Kent. The bishopric is second oldest in England: only Canterbury is older. It was founded by Justus, one of the missionaries who accompanied Saint Augustine to convert the pagan English to Christianity in the early 7th century. As the first bishop of Rochester, Justus was given permission by King Ethelbert of Kent to establish a church of St Andrew the Apostle (the same dedication as the monastery in Rome from which St Augustine and St Justus had set out for England) on the site of the present cathedral, which was made the home of a bishopric. The cathedral was to be served by a college of secular priests and was endowed with land near the city called Priestfield.
The cathedral and city suffered much from the Mercians (676) and the Danes, but retained its importance, so much so that, when William of Normandy conquered England in 1066, he gave the church and its estates to his brother, Odo of Bayeux. The church was reduced to near-destitution, a situation only remedied in 1082 when Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury visited and restored some of its lands and staff. Gundulf, the Norman Bishop of Rochester, also played a very active role; a talented architect himself, the bishop commissioned and probably had a major part in designing a new cathedral to replace Justus' church. He also replaced the secular chaplains by Benedictine monks, translated the relics of St Paulinus to a silver shrine that became a place of pilgrimage, obtained several royal grants of land, and proved a great benefactor to his cathedral city. By the time of his death he had built the nave and Western front, the Western transept being added between 1179 and 1200 and the Eastern transept during the reign of Henry III. The cathedral is small, being only 306 feet long, but its nave is the oldest in England and it has a fine Norman crypt.
The present building is widely regarded as one of the finest Norman cathedrals in the country, with a particularly fine doorway at its western (main) entrance. The tympanum depicts Christ sitting in glory in the centre, with Justus and Ethelbert flanking him on either side of the doorway.
After Gundulf's death, the cathedral had a somewhat chequered history. In 1130 the cathedral was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by thirteen bishops in the presence of Henry I, but the occasion was marred by a great fire which nearly destroyed the whole city and damaged the new cathedral. It was badly damaged by fires again in 1137 and 1179. It was then looted in 1215 by the forces of King John and again in 1264 by Simon de Montfort, during sieges of the city and its castle.
However, besides the shrine of St Paulinus, the cathedral contained the relics of St Ithamar, the first Saxon to be consecrated bishop, and of St William of Perth, a murdered Scottish pilgrim. In 1201 the offerings at St William's tomb were so great, that by their means the choir was rebuilt and the central tower was added (1343), thus completing the cathedral.
The cathedral suffered a steep decline after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, during which time its estates were confiscated by the Crown, and it became dilapidated and disreputable. Samuel Pepys, the diarist, dismissed it as a "shabby place". It underwent some restoration work of mixed success during the 19th century before Sir George Gilbert Scott took on the task in 1872, renovating the cathedral and restoring it to a reasonable facsimile of its original 11th century condition.

Rochester Cathedral Archdeacons of Rochester
Rochester Cathedral's Archdeacons have included:
Rochester Cathedral
Rev. Dr. Thomas Plume, B.A., D.D., founder of the Plume Library, Maldon, Essex, and the Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at the University of Cambridge.
Rev. Dr. Walker King, M.A., D.D., father of the Rt. Rev. Edward King, Bishop of Lincoln.

Sunday, October 28, 2007

John Seigenthaler
John Seigenthaler may be:
John Seigenthaler, Jr., former NBC journalist
John Seigenthaler, Sr., founder of Vanderbilt University's First Amendment Center, assistant to former attorney general Robert F. Kennedy

  • Seigenthaler controversy involving Wikipedia and Seigenthaler

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Sandy Brown, Jazz musician
Sandy Brown (February 25, 1929March 15, 1975) was a noted Indian jazz clarinetist of Scottish descent, band leader and acoustic engineer who performed mostly dixieland.

Friday, October 26, 2007

Vincent Pastore
Vincent Pastore (born July 14, 1946 in Bronx, New York) is an American film and television actor, often cast as a mobster.
Pastore was born in The Bronx, New York, of Italian-American descent. He attended Pace University for 3 years before eventually going into the acting industry after befriending Matt and Kevin Dillon; he was previously a club-owner in New Rochelle, New York. He has made appearances in films ranging from Goodfellas (1990) to Shark Tale (2004), but he is arguably best known for the role of Salvatore "Big Pussy" Bonpensiero on The Sopranos. He is also probably best known for his role in the comedy/crime film The Jerky Boys (1995) as Tony Scarboni, one of the three gangsters and Lazarro (Alan Arkin)'s clients. He still lives in the Bronx, on City Island.
Pastore also appeared in the HBO television movie Gotti as Angelo Ruggiero, along side fellow Sopranos cast members Tony Sirico and Dominic Chianese.
Pastore also hosts The Wiseguy Show on Sirius Satellite Radio (Raw Dog, channel 104).
Pastore lost 29 lbs on the fourth season of the VH1 reality show Celebrity Fit Club which ran from August 6 to October 1, 2006. Pastore is currently starring in the "Wusstock Conspiricies" in Dublin, Ireland, being filmed at Ardmore Studios.
He appeared in The Adventures of Pete & Pete in the "New Year's Pete" episode as Vincent Park, Bowling Agent.
On April 2, 2005, Pastore was arrested for assaulting his fiancée actress/director Lisa Regina in Little Italy, Manhattan. He refused plea deals for community service on May 6 and June 30, but reportedly agreed to plead guilty on September 26.[1] [2] [3] [4]
On February 20, 2007, the ABC television network announced that Pastore would participate in the fourth season of the American version of the competitive dance series Dancing with the Stars.
Also in 2007, he starred in the independent feature film "P.J." ( - co-starring with John Heard and Robert Picardo).
He starred in College Road Trip with Martin Lawrence and Raven Symone, which will debut in 2008.

The section could be improved by integrating relevant items into the main text and removing inappropriate items.
Pastore made cameo appearances in 1990's GoodFellas as well as in 1993's Carlito's Way. In GoodFellas, he is briefly seen rolling a coat rack through the kitchen of a restaurant and is credited as "Vincent Pastore" playing "Man with Coat Rack". In Carlito's Way, he is one of the friends of the Italian man that dances with Gail, whom Kleinfeld insults. He is listed in the credits as "Vinny Pastore" playing "Copa Wiseguy".

Thursday, October 25, 2007

United States Congressional Delegations from Illinois
These are tables of congressional delegations from Illinois to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.
United States Congressional Delegations from Illinois Delegates from Illinois Territory
See also: List of United States Representatives from Illinois

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments and agencies, all acting under the command of the Prime Minister of Turkey or mostly the Minister of the Interior.

Law enforcement in Turkey Turkish Police (Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü)

Main article: turkish Gendarmerie Jandarma (Gendarmerie)
The village guard are very rare, and are mostly locals in villages of the Eastern Anatolia Region. They perform auxiliary and voluntary law enforcement duty. Their initial purpose was to defend villages against terrorist attacks. They were originally called Korucu or Köy Korucusu.


Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Abolition is the act of formally repealing an existing practice through statutory legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form.
Famous things that have been abolished include:
Things that are topics of debate over their possible abolition include:
A common and usually uncontroversial act of abolition is the abolition of electoral districts during redistricting.
slavery; see also: Abolitionism
the Soviet Union
alcohol; see also: prohibition
numerous monarchies
the death penalty
firearms ownership and the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution
Age of Consent

Monday, October 22, 2007

Charles Martin Hall
Charles Martin Hall (December 6, 1863December 27, 1914) was an American inventor and engineer. He is best known for his invention in 1886 of an inexpensive method for producing aluminum, which became the first metal to attain widespread use since the prehistoric discovery of iron.

Charles Hall was born the son of Rev. Heman Bassett Hall and Sophronia H. Brooks in December 6, 1863 in Thompson, Ohio. He had one brother and three sisters, one of whom died in infancy. His family moved to Oberlin, Ohio in 1873, and he graduated from Oberlin High School. In 1880 he enrolled in Oberlin College, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1885. Hall was encouraged in his scientific experiments, which took place in a woodshed behind his family home, with ideas and materials from Professor of Chemistry Frank Fanning Jewett (1844-1926). The Jewett home is preserved in Oberlin as the Oberlin Heritage Center. The center features an exhibit called Aluminum: The Oberlin Connection, which includes a re-creation of Hall's 1886 woodshed experiment. The Hall House is also preserved in Oberlin, although the woodshed was demolished long ago.
The invention Hall produced the first samples of metal on February 23, 1886, after several years of intensive work. He had to fabricate most of his apparatus and prepare his chemicals, and was assisted by his older sister Julia Hall (see Craig 1986, CIM Bulletin). The basic invention involves passing an electric current through a bath of alumina dissolved in cryolite, which results in a puddle of aluminum forming in the bottom of the retort. On July 9, 1886, Hall filed for his first patent. This process was also discovered at nearly the same time by the Frenchman Paul Héroult, and it has come to be known as the Hall-Héroult process.(Asimov 1982, p. 933)
After failing to find financial backing at home, Hall went to Pittsburgh where he made contact with the noted metalurgist Alfred E. Hunt. They formed the Reduction Company of Pittsburgh which opened the first large-scale aluminum production plants. The Reduction Company later became the Aluminum Company of America, then Alcoa. Hall was a major stockholder, and became wealthy.
The Hall-Héroult process eventually resulted in reducing the price of aluminum by a factor of 200, making it affordable for many practical uses. By 1900, annual production reached about 8 thousand tons. Today, more aluminum is produced than all other non-ferrous metals combined.
Hall is considered the originator of the American spelling of aluminum. According to Oberlin College, he misspelled it on a handbill publicizing his aluminum refinement process. The process was so revolutionary, and brought the metal to such prominence, that Americans have spelled aluminum with one i since.


US Patent - [2]Process of reducing aluminium from its fluoride salts by electrolysis -- C. M. Hall, applied 1886, granted 1889.

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Louis Dumont (anthropologist)
Louis Dumont (19111998), was a French anthropologist, associate professor at Oxford University during the 1950s, and director at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris. A specialist on the cultures and societies of India, Dumont also studied western social philosophy and ideologies. His works include Homo Hierarchicus: Essai sur le système des castes (1966), From Mandeville to Marx: The Genesis and Triumph of Economic Ideology (1977) and Essais sur l'individualisme: Une perspective anthropologique sur l'idéologie moderne (1983), in which he contrasts holism with individualism. His studies on Indian society paved the way for the development of culturological approach to the study to Indian society. The culturological approach identifies itself close to the indological approach.

Saturday, October 20, 2007

This article is about the newspaper format. For the Irish current affairs programme, see Broadsheet (Irish TV series).
Broadsheet is the largest of the various newspaper formats and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically 22 inches or more). The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a single sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of matter, from ballads to political satire. The first broadsheet newspaper was the Dutch Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c. published in 1618.
Other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner and Tabloid/Compact formats.

Modern printing facilities most efficiently print broadsheet sections in multiples of eight pages (with four front pages and four back pages). The broadsheet is then cut in half during the process. Thus the newsprint rolls used are defined by the width necessary to print four front pages. The width of a newsprint roll is called its web. Thus the new 12 inch wide frontpage broadsheet newspapers in the United States use a 48-inch web newsprint roll.
With profit margins narrowing for newspapers in the wake of competition from broadcast, cable television, and the internet, newspapers are looking to standardize the size of the newsprint roll. The Wall Street Journal with its 15-inch wide frontpage was printed on 60-inch web newsprint. Early adopters in the downsizing of broadsheets initially used a 50-inch web (12½ inch front pages). However the 48-inch web is now rapidly becoming the definitive standard in the U.S. The New York Times held out on the downsizing until July 2006, saying it would stick to its 54-inch web (13½ inch front page). However, the paper adopted the narrower format beginning Monday, August 6, 2007.
The smaller newspapers also have the advantage of being easier to handle particularly among commuters.

Printing considerations
In some countries, especially the UK and USA, broadsheet newspapers are commonly perceived to be more intellectual in content than their tabloid counterparts, using their greater size to examine stories in more depth, while carrying less sensationalist and celebrity material. This distinction is most obvious on the front page: whereas tabloids tend to have a single story dominated by a headline, broadsheets allow two or more stories to be displayed, the most important at the top of the page - "above the fold." In other countries, such as Spain, a small format is the universal for newspapers - a popular, sensational press has had difficulty taking root - and the tabloid size has no such connotations.
Thus, the distinction regarding specific content is at best a generalization, and the term "tabloid" technically refers only to the paper's size. Serious newspapers in tabloid format, "El País" in Spain and others in Italy, do not make the distinction. Some tabloid-format papers (such as the Daily Mail and Daily Express in the UK) use phrases such as "broadsheet quality in a tabloid format" in an attempt to distinguish themselves from their "tabloid" reputation. In addition, broadsheets often publish supplements, such as sports reviews and less news-oriented content (e.g. the Guardian's "G2" (formerly) or the Times's "Times 2"), in tabloid format.
On the other hand, a few newspapers, such as the German Bild-Zeitung and others throughout central Europe are unashamedly tabloid in content, but still use the physical broadsheet format.

In the UK, one major daily broadsheet is distributed nationwide, and two on a Sunday:
Other prominent UK broadsheets include The Herald and The Press and Journal, which are not true national newspapers, as they are mostly distributed in Scotland. The Financial Times is also printed and sold in other countries; as the British equivalent of the Wall Street Journal, it lends its most detailed attention to financial news. These UK broadsheet have been used for Millwall bricks.
The average circulation of the Times is around 656,000 and the Telegraph sells 908,000 copies daily, while the circulations of the Guardian and Independent, both of them previously published in broadsheet format, are approximately 380,000 and 240,000. The Financial Times sells over 440,000 copies, the Scotsman approximately 70,000 (all figures July 2006).

The Daily Telegraph/Sunday Telegraph; broadly right-wing
The Sunday Times ("The Times" is now a tabloid / compact); both are broadly centre-right UK broadsheets
In 2003 The Independent started concurrent production of both broadsheet and tabloid ("compact") editions, carrying exactly the same content. The Times did likewise, but with less apparent success, with readers vocally opposing the change. The daily Independent ceased to be available in broadsheet format in May 2004, and The Times followed suit from November 2004; The Scotsman is also now published only in tabloid format. The Guardian switched to the "Berliner" or "midi" format found in some other European countries (slightly larger than a traditional tabloid) on 12 September 2005. The Courier-Mail, the only daily newspaper in Brisbane, Australia, also changed from broadsheet to tabloid format on March 13, 2006. The only Malaysian broadsheet, New Straits Times, also changed to tabloid in March 2005.
The main motivation cited for this shift is that commuters prefer papers which they can hold easily on public transport, and it is presumably hoped that other readers will also find the smaller formats more convenient. It remains to be seen how this shake-up will affect the usage of the term "broadsheet". Notably, the Daily Telegraph increased its lead in circulation over the The Times when the latter switched to compact size - this is attributed to the backlash of traditional broadsheet readers.

Broadsheets Switch to smaller sizes

Broadsheets Notable broadsheets

La Nación, the only broadsheet in the country Argentina

The Age, Melbourne (a planned move away from the broadsheet format was announced on 26 April 2007)[1]
The Australian, a national newspaper
The Canberra Times
The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney (a planned move away from the broadsheet format was announced on 26 April 2007)[2]
Sunraysia Daily Australia
Almost all Brazilian newspapers are broadsheets, including major publications like:

O Globo, Rio de Janeiro
Jornal do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro (subscribers' edition-only since April 16, 2006, when the newsstand edition switched to Berliner)
Folha de S. Paulo, São Paulo
O Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo Brazil

The Globe and Mail
The National Post
Toronto Star
The Gazette, Montreal
La Presse, Montreal
Le Devoir, Montreal
The Ottawa Citizen, Ottawa
Winnipeg Free Press, Winnipeg
Halifax Chronicle-Herald
The Telegram, St. John's
The Edmonton Journal, Edmonton
The Calgary Herald, Calgary
The Vancouver Sun, Vancouver Canada

El Mercurio Chile

Politiken Denmark

Listín Diario
La Información, Santiago de los Caballeros Dominican Republic

Helsingin Sanomat
Turun Sanomat
Kaleva Finland

Die Zeit
Die Welt
Süddeutsche Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Germany

Kathimerini Greece
Almost all major newspapers in India are broadsheets. Tabloids are mostly found in small circulation local or rural papers.

Deccan Herald
The Hindu
The Hindustan Times
The Indian Express
The Statesman
The Telegraph
The Times of India India

The Irish Times
The Irish Examiner
The Irish Independent Ireland

The Jerusalem Post Israel

La Stampa, Turin
Corriere della Sera, Milan Italy

de Volkskrant
NRC Handelsblad The Netherlands

The New Zealand Herald, Auckland
The Waikato Times, Hamilton
The Dominion Post, Wellington
The Press, Christchurch
The Otago Daily Times, Dunedin
The Taranaki Daily News, New Plymouth New Zealand

The News International
Daily Mail (Pakistan)
Dawn (newspaper)
The Star (Pakistan) Pakistan

El Comercio, Lima Peru

Philippine Daily Inquirer
The Philippine Star
Manila Bulletin
The Manila Times
The Daily Tribune (The most controversial Broadsheet, because of carrying more Anti-Arroyo Stories.) Philippines

Gazeta Wyborcza
Rzeczpospolita (newspaper)
Dziennik Poland

Expresso, Lisboa Portugal

Izvestia United Kingdom
Almost all major U.S. newspapers are broadsheets, including major publications like:

The Boston Globe
The Chicago Tribune
Houston Chronicle
Los Angeles Times
The New York Times
The Philadelphia Inquirer
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
USA Today
The Wall Street Journal
The Washington Post
The Kansas City Star
The Minneapolis Star Tribune
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

Friday, October 19, 2007

African religions · Atheists Bahá'ís · Buddhists · CatharsReligious intolerance Religion in China · Christians Hellenistic religions · Hindus · Jews Mormons · Muslims · Neopagans Rastafari · Sikhs Soviet Union policy towards religions Zoroastrians
Anti-clericalism · Censorship Genocide · Forced conversion War · Discrimination · Fascism Intolerance · Police · Terrorism Segregation · Violence · Abuse State atheism · State religion Dechristianisation in the French Revolution Revolt in the Vendee · Cristero War Red Terror · Red terror (Spain) Cultural Revolution · Reign of Terror Inquisition · Wars of Religion St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Khmer Rouge · Pontic tragedy · Kulturkampf Armenian Genocide · Assyrian Genocide History of Communist Albania Racism · Sexism · Ageism · Religious intolerance · Xenophobia
Social Heterosexism · Homophobia · Lesbophobia · Transphobia · Biphobia · Ableism · Sizeism · Heightism · Adultism · Gerontophobia · Misogyny · Misandry · Lookism · Classism · Elitism
Americans · Arabs · Armenians · Australians · Canadians · Catalans · Chinese · English · Europeans · French · Germans · Indians · Iranians · Irish · Italians · Japanese · Jews · Malay · Mexicans · Pakistanis · Poles · Portuguese · Quebecers · Roma · Romanians · Russians · Serbs · Turks
Atheism · Bahá'í · Catholicism · Christianity · Hinduism · Judaism · Mormonism · Islam · Neopaganism · Protestantism ·
Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching · Hate speech · Hate crime · Genocide · Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war · Religious persecution · Gay bashing · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Blood libel · Black Legend · Paternalism · Ephebiphobia
Discriminatory Hate groups · Aryanism · Ku Klux Klan · Neo-Nazism · American Nazi Party · South African National Party · Kahanism · SupremacismReligious intolerance Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · LGBT rights · Women's/Universal suffrage · Feminism · Masculism Men's/Fathers rights Children's rights · Youth rights · Disability rights · Inclusion · Autistic rights · Equalism
Discriminatory Race/Religion/Sex segregation · Apartheid · Redlining · Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation · Civil rights · Desegregation · Integration Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action · Racial quota · Reservation · Reparations · Forced busing
Discriminatory Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration · Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws · Black codes · Apartheid laws · Nuremberg Laws Anti-discriminatory List of anti-discrimination acts
Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism · Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism · Adultcentrism · Isolationism · Gynocentrism · Androcentrism · Economic discrimination
Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism · Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity · Multiculturalism · Political correctness · Reverse discrimination · Eugenics · Racialism · Speciesism
Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by one's own religious beliefs or intolerance against another's religious beliefs or practices. It manifests both at a cultural level, but may also be a formal part of the dogma of particular religious groups.
The mere statement on the part of a religion that its own beliefs and practices are correct and any contrary beliefs incorrect does not in itself constitute intolerance. There are many cases throughout history of established religions tolerating other practices. Religious intolerance, rather, is when a group (a society, a religious group) specifically refuses to tolerate practises, persons or beliefs on religious grounds.
Religious intolerance may be purely religious, but can be a "cover story" for an underlying political or cultural motive.

Contemporary attitude and practice

Thursday, October 18, 2007

Michael Brecker
Michael Brecker (March 29, 1949January 13th, 2007) was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Acknowledged as "a quiet, gentle musician widely regarded as the most influential tenor saxophonist since John Coltrane," he won 13 Grammys as both performer and composer.

Michael Brecker Biography

Ben Ratliff. "Michael Brecker, 57, Grammy-Winning Jazz Saxophonist", New York Times, January 15, 2007, p. A17. 

Wednesday, October 17, 2007

Ron Todd
For Australian rules footballer see here.
Ronald Todd (March 11, 1927April 30, 2005), generally known as Ron Todd, was the general secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU), then the largest general trade union in the United Kingdom, from 1985 until 1992.
Todd was born in Walthamstow, London. His father was a stallholder in a local street market and Todd left school at the age of 14 to work in a barber's shop. He also worked as an assistant to a plumber before being conscripted into the Royal Marines in the last days of World War II. For a time he served alongside his father in the Marines and was posted to Hong Kong.
After completing his national service, Todd returned to plumbing and then worked in the Ford factory in Dagenham, where he joined the TGWU. He became a shop steward in 1955 and then deputy convenor, before becoming a full-time district officer in 1962 as local officer of the TGWU's Metal, Engineering and Chemical Group. In 1969, he became the first group secretary of the Region One Vehicle Building and Automotive Trade Group. He became regional secretary for Region One (London, the Southeast and East Anglia) in 1975, before being promoted to national organiser in March 1978.
After being elected to succeed Moss Evans as the union's seventh general secretary in 1985, following a second ballot, he was also named as an honorary vice-president of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Todd earned a reputation for his commitment to human rights and was a vocal opponent of apartheid in South Africa. He was succeeded as general secretary by Bill Morris.
Ron Todd died of leukaemia, from which he had been suffering for some time.

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Ciudad Bolívar has one municipality: Heres Municipality, Venezuelan law specifies that municipal governments have four main functions: executive, legislative, comptroller, and planning. The executive function is managed by the mayor, who is in charge of representing the municipality's administration. The legislative branch is represented by the Municipal Council, composed of seven councillors, charged with the deliberation of new decrees and local laws. The comptroller tasks are managed by the municipal comptroller's office, which oversees accountancy. Finally, planning is represented by the Local Public Planning Council, which manages development projects for the municipality.

Ciudad Bolívar Law and government
Ciudad Bolívar is located at 43 meters of altitude on the south shore of the Orinoco river, in its narrower part, fluvial port of the east of Venezuela. Its northern limit is the Orinoco river, in the south it borders the Raul Leoní municipality, to the east the municipalities Caroní and Piar, and to the west the Sucre municipality. Ciudad Bolívar is constituted by the parishes Catedral, Agua Salada, Sabanita, Vista Hermosa, Marhuanta, José Antonio Páez, Orinoco, Panapana, and Zea. Geologically, the city presents a great tectonic stability, because the ancient lands, which have survived a series of collapses, also present forms of level earth relief.

The morichales are found at the shores of the rivers, the chaparral. Species including the carob tree, the sarrapia, and the merecure are prevalent, whereas the fauna is represented by such species as capibara, morrocoy, herons, parrots, lapa, iguanas, and others. A high percentage corresponds to fluvial species, like the fishes: curbinata, dorado, lau- lau, morocoto, palometa, sapoara.

The temperature average varies between 26 and 30 °C. This climatic variety is represented by the periods of rain and drought, presented in high and variable forms, greater rainfall in regard to the high temperatures that cause a strong evaporation, arriving at 1022 mm annual. These high amounts favor the presence of rivers of great volume like the Orinoco, as well as others of minor volume: Orocopiche, Marcela, and La Candelaria, for example.

Ciudad Bolívar is a region dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry on a small scale. Maize, yucca, mango, yam, and watermelon are characteristic products cultivated in the zone. Cattle activity is represented by the bovine and pig. The fluvial fishing is carried out in a small proportion, the tourism has receiving economic importance, which comes to reinforce the productive sector of the zone, among others economic activities of the city are, the commerce, services, transports, fast food chains, like McDonalds and Wendy's, and distributors of national and international industries, such as: Plumrose, Pepsi-Cola, Coca-Cola, Empresas Polar, Bloque de prensa de Armas, as well as the Supermarket chains Central Madeirense and Koma, among others. Ciudad Bolívar is the seat of the state government of the Bolívar state.
The Angostura Bridge has great importance as a communicational infrastructure, since it unites this locality with the rest of Venezuela. Also important is the freeway that unites Ciudad Bolívar with Ciudad Guayana. Another representative infrastructure is the General José Tomás de Heres airport. The city hosts hotels such as Laja Real, La Cumbre, El Bolívar Gran Hotel, El Salto Angel, Posada Amor Patrio, Posada Angostura, and others. The hospital infrastructure is represented among others by: Thorax Hospital, Ruiz y Páez Hospital, Red Cross.
Centers of education include the universities Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez, Universidad de Oriente, Universidad Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, Universidad Nacional Abierta, etc, and institutes of primary and secondary education. Nevertheless, Ciudad Bolívar lacks the required infrastructure to obtain true economic and social progress, because the competent organizations have not developed a work plan that really responds to the exigency of the city, as capital and seat of the political power of the Bolívar state. Among the services of the locality are drinking water, electricity, telephone, transport, mail, Internet, banks, and malls, among others, that influence the profit of the economic development, and the well-being of the population. The communications are represented by the roads and the media, that facilitate commerce and the relations between the people. Examples of these mass media are television (Bolivar Vision, TV Río), radio, Internet, and newspapers (El Bolivarense, El Expreso, El Progreso, El Luchador), among others. The most important routes of transport are terrestrial, as much extraurban and interurban, covering national routes, and the fluvial, represented mainly by boats that cover the passage from Ciudad Bolívar to Soledad, as well as other small towns.

Economy and services
Ciudad Bolívar's historical zone is a great touristic attraction featuring houses and public buildings that date from the colonial period. The Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art, named after the sculptor and painter Jesús Rafael Soto, features a collection of modern works by Venezuelan and international artists. In musical matters, Ciudad Bolívar is the place of birth of artists like: Cheo Hurtado, Iván Pérez Rossi, Antonio Lauro (guitarist, considered to be one of the foremost South American composers of the 20th century), also is the seat of groupings like Serenata Guayanesa and the Ensemble Orinoco, in events and fairs, the city lodges every year since 1971, the Orinoco Fair, this is a touristic event, that is part of a tribute to the Orinoco River. Between the folkloric musical sorts present in the city, we can mention:
The city is also home to an array of immigrants from but not limited to: Spain, Italy, Portugal, the Middle East, Germany, China, and Latin American countries.

Joropo guayanés Culture
One of the traditions of the region´s cuisine are the desserts and preserves made of cashew nuts, which can also be tasted alone or roasted with salt. The cassava bread prepared in the area is also famous as well as several meals made of tortoise such as the Carapacho de Morrocoy Guayanés (baked tortoise in its shell). A culinary delight with alleged aphrodisiac power is the Catara sauce, which is a spicy sauce made of cassava juice or yare, species, and the so called big-butt ant.


Sites of interest
Like Plaza de Armas or Plaza Mayor, this seat served at the time of the colonial period as a common center for political concentrations, and public market. The history of the statue of Simón Bolivar goes back to October 26, 1867, when the President of the State, Juan Bautista Dalla Costa, named a committee to erect a statue of El Libertador in the space of the Plaza Mayor. The plan for the new urban space was in charge of Régulo Machado, who the day of Saint Simon, on October 28, 1869, inaugurated the first pedestrian statue of Bolívar, and five stone statues, in representation of the Republics released by El Libertador in the independence wars in South America.

Plaza Bolívar
This construction was the principal house of the Hacienda of Jose Luis Cornieles, who was a member of the first Congress of Angostura, and friend of Simón Bolivar. Bolívar lodged in this house during his stay in the city, and it was the place where he wrote his famous message to the Congress of Angostura in 1819. The house dates from the XVIII century, and conserves a noticeably colonial style. It has a chapel, in which is venerated the image of Isidore the Laborer, that was recovered in 1966. It has two centennial trees, a Kapok and a Tamarind. One says that in the Tamarind, Simón Bolívar used to tie his horse, when he visited the place. It was declared a National Historical Monument on March 21, 1968.

San Isidro Museum
To determine with exactitude the date of construction of this building is very difficult; nevertheless, its proximity with the Plaza Bolívar suggests that it had to be one of the first in the city. Before being Parochial House and office of the General Vicar of the Diocese. In its rooms are kept compilations of religious pieces of great value, between which appear wood statues, and images like the one of Nuestra Señora de Las Nieves, patron saint of the city.

Parochial House
This building, also known like House of Governors, was constructed by orders of Manuel Centurión in 1766, as the seat of a school (Escuela de latín y primeras letra). In addition, it served as residence for the governors of the province. On February 15, 1817, the main hall was witness of the installation of the Congress of Angostura. Also, the last 37 numbers of the newspaper Correo del Orinoco were printed there. One says that Simón Bolívar was present at the execution of Manuel Piar, from a balconie of the house. From 1829, it became an Education center and public library; in 1840 it was the seat of the Guayana School, and in 1883 the president Antonio Guzmán Blanco, classified it as an institute of first category. Nowadays it is a museum and the seat of the Historical Files of Guayana.

Ciudad Bolívar House of the Congress of Angostura
This church of colonial style is located to the northeast of the Plaza Bolívar. It is dedicated to Nuestra Señora de Las Nieves, patron saint of the city, whose celebration is on August 5. The central Nave measures 26 Mts, and the tower 44 Mts, which has in its interior thirteen bells and a giant clock, that each quarter of hour plays the Bolívar state anthem. The original project its from 1771, and its conclusion and inauguration from 1840, was the Monsignor Mariano de Talavera y Garcés, fourth bishop of Guayana, that started up the completion of the cathedral. The original planes of the engineer Bartolomé de Amphoux, that were lost, were found in the 1970s by the architect Graziano Gasparini in the Archivo General de Indias, thanks to which the structure was recovered. On February 15, 1979, under the government of Carlos Andrés Pérez, the building was reinaugurated. In a wall of the Cathedral, near the Plaza Bolívar, was executed Manuel Piar, on October 16, 1817, after a sentence of the court martial, who found him culprit of conspiracy, crime and treason.

Ciudad Bolívar Cathedral
By the location of this construction of the end of the XVIII century, it was created like a dependency of the San Gabriel Fort, which was located opposite to it. It was the residence of several governors and command of the police. In addition, it worked like a public jail until 1951, when the jail of Vista Hermosa was built. This building of colonial lines erected on a small plateau, and constructed like a stone fort, presents a character of defense and force. At the moment, and after its restoration, it lodges the General Archives of Guayana and the Institute of History of the Bolivar State, the writer Rufino Blanco Fombona, and the poet and revolutionary Alfredo Arvelo Larriva were imprisoned there in 1905.

Old prison
This building dates from the XIX century, specifically during the mandate of the Governor Juan Bautista Dalla Costa. Peculiarly, it was constructed in the same terrains, that the Accountant's office of the Real Property occupied in the days of the colony. The building was inaugurated on June 19, 1867, and was originally designed for a single plant, but later, at the beginning of the XX century, was added its high part, structure that conserves at the moment. Nowadays it is the seat of the Bolívar state government.

Government Palace
In front of the Plaza Bolívar of Ciudad Bolívar, is the house that served like prison to Manuel Piar,

Piar house

Main article: Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art Jesús Soto Museum of Modern Art

Colleges and universities
(Universidad de Oriente) or UDO, is a public institution located in Ciudad Bolívar, and the east of Venezuela. On January 8, 1962 initiated its academic activities with the Schools of Medicine and Geology. On August, 1968, the basic courses are created, and on January, 1969, the academic and administrative activities begin. At the present time, this university nucleus account with the basic courses, the Medicine School, the Earth science School, and dictates nine careers.

Universidad de Oriente
(Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana) or UNEG, is a public institution located in Ciudad Bolívar,Venezuela, created on March 9, 1982. This university was conceived like a center of superior education of regional character. The original name project of the university was, Universidad del Sur, that was changed by the present one.

Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana

Universidad Simón Rodríguez
Universidad Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho
Instituto Universitario Tecnologico del estado Bolivar
Universidad Nacional Abierta
Instituto Universitario Tecnológico Rodolfo Loero Arismendi
Universidad Bolivariana de Venezuela Other universities

Buses are the main means of mass transportation, this system runs a variety of bus types, operated by several companies on normal streets and avenues:
bus; large buses.
buseta; medium size buses.
microbus or colectivo; vans or minivans.
Perrera; a modified pick-up, for mass transportation.
The José Tomás de Heres Airport, is located in the center of the city. Transportation

Paseo Orinoco
Libertador avenue
Paseo Meneses
Germania avenue
Jesús Soto avenue
Táchira avenue
Andrés Bello avenue
Upata avenue
Bolívar avenue
5 de julio avenue
17 de diciembre avenue
Andrés Eloy Blanco avenue
Sucre avenue
República avenue
Paseo Simón Bolívar
Rotaria avenue
Perimetral avenue
Francisco Solano avenue
Aeropuerto avenue
Nueva Granada avenue
España avenue
Colón street Gallery

Bolívar state
List of cities in Venezuela